Introductory Genetics review - answer key

Class notes in ppt plus worksheets

Mendel & Meiosis outline notes

Understanding Biological Inheritance

Mendel's Dihybrid Crosses Exceptions to Mendel's Laws

Monohybrid practice sheets

Sponge Bob practice Sex Determination & Sex-linked Traits
Pedigree Analysis  Pedigree worksheet Review sheets on basic genetics
Sponge Bob Dihybrid practice sheets Sponge Bob Codominance practice sheets Bikini Bottom Genetics Review
Monohybrid worksheets Dihybrid worksheets  

Wisconsin Fast PlantsBrassica rapa

Mendel's genetics - extra information

Human Traits Survey - lab activity

Classical Genetics Jeopardy - game


Genetics Web Lab Directory - interactive activities on MANY topics in genetics/biology!

Genetics Review  Answer Key

Some good links for extra practice:

Punnett Squares - notes and diagrams

Very simple genetics practice

Excellent article on Mendel

Online Genetics Tutorials Classical Genetics - simple explanation Basic principles of genetics crossword puzzle
Virtual Fly Lab & worksheet Classical genetics ppt - notes Pedigree analysis
Corn genetics - lab activity Drag & Drop Monohybrid Crosses Basic Genetics worksheet practice
Study of genetic corn lab activity Definitions for terms in Genetics problems Index of Biology topics - exercises
Baby Steppin' Through Punnett Squares -very good!! Interactive genetics problems More genetics problems for practice
Still more practice Personal pedigree assignment Pedigree Investigator
Pedigree practice assignment More practice on Mendel AP Genetics problems
More genetics practice Patterns of Inheritance Pea Soup Experiment
Sponge Bob Genetics Quiz Science of Heredity - key concepts notes Mendelian Genetics
Mendel's Inheritance - interactive  Phenotypes lab activity Genetics Lesson Plan Ideas
Genetics in Action - lesson & activities    


E-Bio Links

Single Gene Traits Activity
Monohybrid Genetic Problem Worksheet
Dihybrid Genetic Problems Worksheet
- Pedigree Chart Worksheet

- Sex-Linked Pedigree Worksheet

Mendel's Monohybrid Cross

adapted from Kimball's Biology Pages


Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was an Austrian monk who discovered the basic rules of inheritance. From 1858 to 1866, he bred garden peas in his monastery garden and analyzed the offspring of these matings. The garden pea was good choice of experimental organism because:

The first cross

Mendel crossed a pure-breeding round-seeded variety with a pure-breeding wrinkled-seeded one.

Our interpretation

The parents (designated the P generation) were pure-breeding because each was homozygous for the alleles at the gene locus (on chromosome 7) controlling seed texture (RR for round; rr for wrinkled).

The results

All the peas produced in the second or hybrid generation were round.

Our interpretation

All the peas of this F1 generation have an Rr genotype. All the haploid sperm and eggs produced by meiosis received one chromosome 7. All the zygotes received one R allele (from the round parent) and one r allele (from the wrinkled parent). Because the round trait is dominant, the phenotype of all the seeds was round.
    P gametes (round parent)
    R R
P gametes
(wrinkled parent)
r Rr Rr
r Rr Rr

The second cross

Mendel then allowed his hybrid peas to self-pollinate.

The results

The wrinkled trait which had disappeared in his hybrid generation reappeared in 25% of the new crop of peas.


Random union of equal numbers of R and r gametes produced an F2 generation with 25% RR and 50% Rr - both with the round phenotype - and 25% rr with the wrinkled phenotype.
    F1 gametes
    R r
F1 gametes R RR Rr
r Rr rr

The third cross

Mendel then allowed some of each phenotype in the F2 generation to self-pollinate. His results:


One-third of the round seeds and all of the wrinkled seeds in the F2 generation were homozygous and produced only seeds of the same phenotype.

But two thirds of the round seeds in the F2 were heterozygous and their self-pollination produced both phenotypes in the ratio of a typical F1 cross.

Phenotype ratios are approximate

The union of sperm and eggs is random. So the pod in the color photo (courtesy of Cathie Martin from Cell 12 January 1990) with its 9 smooth seeds and 3 wrinkled seeds! represents something of a statistical fluke. As the size of the sample gets larger, however, chance deviations become minimized and the ratios approach the theoretical predictions more closely. The table shows the actual seed production by ten of Mendel's F1 plants. While his individual plants deviated widely from the expected 3:1 ratio, the group as a whole approached it quite closely.
  Round Wrinkled
1. 45 12
2. 27 8
3. 24 7
4. 19 16
5. 32 11
6. 26 6
7. 88 24
8. 22 10
9. 28 6
10. 25 7
Total 336 107

Mendel's Hypothesis

To explain his results, Mendel formulated a hypothesis that included the following:
  1. In the organism there is a pair of factors that controls the appearance of a given characteristic. (We call them genes.)
  2. The organism inherits these factors from its parents, one from each.
  3. Each is transmitted from generation to generation as a discrete, unchanging unit. (The wrinkled seeds in the F2 generation were no less wrinkled than those in the P generation although they had passed through the round-seeded F1 generation.)
  4. When the gametes are formed, the factors separate and are distributed as units to each gamete. This statement is often called Mendel's rule of segregation.
  5. If an organism has two unlike factors (we call them alleles) for a characteristic, one may be expressed to the total exclusion of the other (dominant vs recessive).

The Testcross: A Test of Mendel's Hypothesis

A good hypothesis meets several standards.

So if a generalization is valid, then certain specific consequences can be deduced from it.

In order to test his hypothesis, Mendel predicted the outcome of a breeding experiment that he had not yet carried out. He crossed heterozygous round peas (Rr) with wrinkled (homozygous, rr) ones. He predicted that in this case one-half of the seeds produced would be round (Rr) and one-half wrinkled (rr)

    F1 gametes
    R r
P gametes r Rr rr
r Rr rr

To a casual observer in the monastery garden, the cross appeared no different from the P cross described above: round-seeded peas being crossed with wrinkled-seeded ones. But Mendel predicted that this time he would produce both round and wrinkled seeds and in a 50:50 ratio. He performed the cross and harvested 106 round peas and 101 wrinkled peas.

This kind of mating is called a testcross. It "tests" the genotype in those cases where two different genotypes (like RR and Rr) produce the same phenotype.

Mendel did not stop here.

Mendel's rules today

Little attention was paid when Mendel published his findings in 1866. Not until 1900, 34 years later and 16 years after his death, was his work brought to light. By then, three men working independently discovered the same principles. So the present remarkable development of genetics dates from only the start of the 20th century.

The discovery of chromosomes and their behavior during meiosis (2n -> n) and fertilization (n + n -> 2n) established the structural basis for Mendel's rules.

What is the status today of Mendel's rules? Although many important exceptions to them have been discovered two examples: his rules still form the foundation upon which the science of genetics rests.